Freezing of Tidal Current Under Ice in a Shallow Channel
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
We analyze tidal currents under ice in a shallow channel located near the tip of the Van Mijen Fjord in Spitsbergen. During the flood cycle of tide seawater flows under ice and strongly freezes in a shallow channel. During the ebb cycle salinity of the outflowing water is greater than that of the inflowing water. Salt balance is estimated. During high-water tide, salt water seeps through the cracks in the ice to the surface, which increases salinity of the snow and water mixture.

Keywords:
Spitsbergen, shallow water, channel under ice, tidal current, freezing of seawater, salinity increase
Text
Publication text (PDF): Read Download

Freezing of Tidal Current Under Ice in a Shallow Channel

E. G. Morozov1

A. V. Marchenko

K.V. Filchuk

Received 24 February 2022; accepted 21 March 2022; published 3 May 2022.

Introduction

We study tidal currents under ice in a shallow tip of the Van Mijen Fjord in Spitsbergen. The location is called Braganzavägen. A creek of freshwater is flowing down from melting mountain snow and glaciers along the Kjellstromdalen valley to the southwest approximately along the middle line of the valley. This geological structure continues in a shallow channel (\(\sim\)1 m depth) in the Braganzavägen basin. This basin is subjected to strong tides in the Van Mijen Fjord. The open ocean is located at a distance of 80 km. The basin is covered with ice in winter. The whole bulk of ice in the basin is generally aground because most of the basin area freezes to the bottom. However, continuations of the flow from the mountains along shallow channels do not freeze to the bottom in February leaving a shallow channel that allows a tidal flow.

A summer aerial photo in shows the stream from the mountains in the valley, which flows into the fjord in the shallow Braganzavägen basin. Another aerial photo of this region is also shown in . A chart of the region is shown in .