Clusters of Cyclones and Their Effect on Coast Abrasion in Kaliningrad Region
Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
The shores of the Kaliningrad Region (the Russian part of the South-Eastern Baltic Sea) are regularly exposed to extreme storms, which leads to intensive abrasion and flooding of the land. Based on archival data, meteorological monitoring, forecast and synoptic maps, an analysis of extreme storms observed in the autumn–winter periods of the early 21st century was done. The cyclone type was determined using the HYSPLIT (Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model), which makes it possible to reconstruct the trajectory of the approach of the atmospheric vortex to the coast. The seasons with clusters of storms were identified, when deep cyclones affected the coasts of the Kaliningrad Region in a relatively short time. Regardless of the type of trajectory, storms cause destruction of both natural and infrastructure objects. But the shores of the northern exposure are most susceptible to destruction by “diving” cyclones, the wave regime of which has a high potential energy. Earlier it was noted that the frequency of cyclones with northerly winds increases. Clusters of northern cyclones are especially dangerous, as was in January 2022, when 4 atmospheric eddies affected the coast with an interval of several hours to 2–3 days. When the water level was high, the waves crashed on the coast, causing catastrophic damage. The coastal monitoring revealed numerous destruction of the banks, breakthroughs of the foredune, both flooding and collapse of forests, critical damage to engineering and coastal protection structures and infrastructure facilities. Dozens of hectares of coastal territories have been lost. There are environmental problems associated with numerous emissions into the marine environment of a huge amount of anthropogenic mega-, macro-, meso-, micro-debris with a predominance of plastic after extreme storms.

cyclone clusters, storm activity, storm coast erosion, level, autumn–winter season, Kaliningrad Region, South-Eastern Baltic Sea, coastal protection structures
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